Nobelova nagrada

Nobelova nagrada, ceremonija dodjele Nobelove nagrade 1997.

Nobelova nagrada, Nobelova medalja za mir

Nobelova nagrada, nagrada koju godišnje podjeljuju četiri institucije (tri švedske i jedna norveška) iz zaklade utemeljene prema oporuci → Alfreda Bernharda Nobela. Nagrada se dodjeljuje od 1901. (s izuzetkom ratnih godina 1940–42), na dan Nobelove smrti (10. prosinca). Do 1969. podjeljivano je pet nagrada, a od te godine šest (za ekonomiju). Nagrade su Nobelovom oporučnom voljom namijenjene onim pojedincima ili udrugama, bez obzira na nacionalnu i vjersku pripadnost, koji su svojim postignućima „pridonijeli općoj dobrobiti čovječanstva” i koji su stekli najviše zasluge za otkrića na raznim područjima. Ustanovljeno je pet nagrada za sljedeća područja: (I) fiziku, (II) kemiju, (III) medicinu ili fiziologiju, (IV) književnost te (V) nagrada mirotvorcima koji su pridonijeli razumijevanju među narodima, miru i ukidanju naoružanja. Godine 1968. Švedska banka ustanovila je šestu nagradu za ekonomske znanosti te Nobelovoj zakladi osigurava za tu nagradu jednu godišnju svotu. Prva je nagrada dodijeljena 1969. Nobelova nagrada ne dodjeljuje se posthumno. Visina nagrade jednaka je za svih šest kategorija, ali iznos ovisi o veličini fondova i njihovoj rentabilnosti. Novčani dio nagrade od 2001. iznosi 10 milijuna švedskih kruna, a ta se svota dijeli ako je dobitnika iz jednog područja više (dioba može biti različita, pola-pola za dva dobitnika, ili po 1/3, odnosno 1/2 i dvaput po 1/4 za tri dobitnika). Osim novčanoga iznosa, svaki od nagrađenih dobiva zlatnu medalju i diplomu. Prema Nobelovoj oporuci određene su institucije koje dodjeljuju svaku od nagrada. Tako nagradu za mir dodjeljuje Norveško Nobelovo povjerenstvo od pet članova, kojima mandat traje šest godina, a bira ih norveški Storting (djelomični izbori održavaju se svake treće godine). Dobitnike ostalih nagrada utvrđuju zasebna povjerenstva Kraljevske švedske akademije znanosti (za fiziku i kemiju), Karolinškoga medicinskokirurškog instituta (za medicinu ili fiziologiju) i Švedske akademije (za književnost). Povjerenstvima u radu i odabiru pomažu posebni Nobelovi instituti. Pojedina nagrada može se razdijeliti, ali najviše na tri dobitnika. Nagrade se mogu dodjeljivati samo pojedinim osobama, izuzev u slučaju nagrade za mir, koja može biti dodijeljena i pojedinim ustanovama. Ako neko od povjerenstava zaključi da te godine nitko nije zavrijedio nagradu, ona se ne mora dodijeliti. Svaka se nagrada, međutim, mora podijeliti barem jrdnom u pet godina. Dosad je četvero znanstvenika dvaput primilo nagradu, fizičar → John Bardeen (1956. i 1972), kemičar → Frederick Sanger (1958. i 1980), a → Maria Curie i → Linus Carl Pauling iz dvaju različitih područja (Maria Curie za fiziku 1903. i kemiju 1911, a Linus Carl Pauling za kemiju 1954. i mir 1962); dvije nagrade iz istoga područja (za mir) dodijeljene su → Međunarodnom odboru Crvenoga križa. Bilo je i nekoliko slučajeva odbijanja Nobelove nagrade. Uglavnom se radilo o vanjskim pritiscima na pojedince u vrijeme nacističkoga režima u Njemačkoj u razdoblju 1937–45., kada je Nijemcima, posebnom Hitlerovom uredbom, bilo zabranjeno da prihvate Nobelovu nagradu. Zbog svoje važnosti, Nobelova nagrada uvijek izaziva snažne medijske reakcije. Pokazalo se da su najmanje kontroverzne nagrade koje se dodjeljuju na području znanosti i medicine, dok su one iz područja književnosti i mira oduvijek izazivale polemike i kontroverze. Do 2006. bilo je ukupno 758 dobitnika Nobelove nagrade, od toga 33 žene. Dobitnici nagrade hrvatskoga podrijetla bili su: → Lavoslav Ružička za kemiju (1939), → Ivo Andrić za književnost (1961) i → Vladimir Prelog za kemiju (1975).

God. Fizika Kemija Fiziologija ili medicina Književnost Mir Ekonomija
1901. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Jacobus Hen(d)ricus van’t Hoff Emil von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henri Dunant,
Frédéric Passy
1902. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz,
Pieter Zeeman
Emil Herman Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun,
Charles Albert Gobat
1903. Antoine Henri Becquerel,
Pierre Curie,
Maria Curie-Skłodowska
Svante August Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Martinius Bjørnson William Randal Cremer
1904. John William Strutt Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Petrovič Pavlov Frédéric Mistral,
José  Echegaray y Eizaguirre
Institut za međunarodno pravo
1905. Philipp Eduard Anton Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906. Joseph John Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi,
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosue Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907. Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta,
Louis Renault
1908. Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Ilja Iljić Mečnikov,
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson,
Fredrik Bajer
1909. Karl Ferdinand Braun,
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Friedrich  Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert,
Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet d’Estournelles de Constant
1910. Johannes Diderik Van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse Stalni međunarodni ured za mir
1911. Wilhelm Wien Maria Curie-Skłodowska Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Michael Carel Asser,
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912. Nils Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard,
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913. Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Robert Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914. Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány  (nema)  (nema)
1915. William Henry Bragg,
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter  (nema) Romain Rolland  (nema)
1916.  (nema) (nema) (nema) Carl Gustav Verner von Heidenstam  (nema)
1917. Charles Glover Barkla  (nema) (nema) Karl Adolf Gjellerup,
Henrik Pontoppidan
Međunarodni odbor Crvenoga križa
1918. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck Fritz Haber  (nema) (nema)  (nema)
1919. Johannes Stark  (nema) Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Thomas Woodrow Wilson
1920. Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Hermann Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921. Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy  (nema) Anatole France Karl Hjalmar Branting,
Christian Lous Lange
1922. Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Vivian Hill,
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente y Martínez Fridtjof Nansen
1923. Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Grant Banting,
John James Rickard Macleod
William Butler Yeats  (nema)
1924. Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn  (nema) Willem Einthoven Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont  (nema)
1925. James Franck,
Gustav Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy  (nema) George Bernard Shaw Joseph Austen Chamberlain,
Charles Gates Dawes
1926. Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand,
Gustav Stresemann
1927. Arthur Holly Compton,
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson,
Ludwig Quidde
1928. Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset  (nema)
1929. Louis Victor de Broglie Arthur Harden,
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan. Eijkman,
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank Billings Kellogg
1930. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931.  (nema) Carl Bosch,
Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams,
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932. Werner Karl Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington,
Edgar Douglas Adrian
John Galsworthy  (nema)
1933. Erwin Schrödinger,
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
 (nema) Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Aleksejevič Bunjin Norman Angell
1934.  (nema) Harold Clayton Urey George Hoyt Whipple,
George Richards Minot,
William Parry Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935. James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot,
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann  (nema) Carl von Ossietzky
1936. Carl David Anderson,
Victor Francis Hess
Peter Joseph Wilhelm Debye Henry Hallet Dale,
Otto Loewi
Eugene O’Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937. Clinton Joseph Davisson,
George Paget Thomson
Walter Norman Haworth,
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt Roger Martin du Gard Edgar Algernon Robert Cecil of Chelwood
1938. Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn Corneille Jean-François Heymans Pearl Buck Nansenov međunarodni ured za izbjeglice
1939. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt,
Lavoslav Ružička
Gerhard Domagk Frans Eemil Sillanpää (nema)
1940.  (nema) (nema)  (nema)  (nema) (nema)
1941.  (nema) (nema) (nema) (nema) (nema)
1942.  (nema) (nema) (nema) (nema) (nema)
1943. Otto Stern George Hevesy Carl Peter Henrik Dam,
Edward Adelbert Doisy
 (nema) (nema)
1944. Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger,
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen Međunarodni odbor Crvenoga križa
1945. Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming,
Ernst Boris Chain,
Howard Walter Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946. Percy Williams Bridgman James Batcheller Sumner,
John Howard Northrop,
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch,
John Raleigh Mott
1947. Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Gerty Theresa Cori,
Carl Ferdinand Cori,
Bernardo Alberto Houssay
André Gide The Friends Service Council,
The American Friends Service Committee (kvekeri u Washingtonu)
1948. Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller Thomas Stearns Eliot  (nema)
1949. Hideki Yukawa William Francis Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess,
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
Willian Faulkner John Boyd-Orr
1950. Cecil Frank Powell Otto Diels,
Kurt Alder
Edward Calvin Kendall,
Tadeusz Reichstein,
Philip Showalter Hench
Bertrand Russell Ralph Johnson Bunche
1951. John Douglas Cockcroft,
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
Edwin Matisson McMillan,
Glenn Theodore Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Fabian Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952. Felix Bloch,
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin,
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Abraham Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953. Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs,
Fritz Albert Lipmann
WinstonLeonard Spencer Churchill George Catlett Marshall
1954. Max Born,
Walter Bothe
Linus Carl Pauling John Franklin Enders,
Thomas Huckle Weller,
Frederick Chapman Robbins
Ernest Hemingway Ured visokoga povjerenika UN-a za izbjeglice
1955. Willis Eugene Lamb,
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Halldór Kiljan Laxness  (nema)
1956. William Bradford Shockley,
John Bardeen,
Walter Houser Brattain
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood,
Nikolaj Nikolajevič Semjonov
André Frédéric Cournand,
Werner Forssmann,
Dickinson Woodruff Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez  (nema)
1957. Chen Ning Yang,
Tsung-Dao Lee
Alexander Robertus Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester Bowles Pearson
1958. Pavel Aleksejevič Čerenkov,
Ilja Mihajlovič Frank,
Igor Jevgenjevič Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle,
Edward Lawrie Tatum,
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Leonidovič Pasternak Georges Pire
1959. Emilio Segrè,
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Severo Ochoa,
Arthur Kornberg
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip John Noel-Baker
1960. Donald Arthur Glaser Willard Frank Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet,
Peter Brian Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert John Mvumbi Luthuli
1961. Robert Hofstadter,
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin George von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld
1962. Lev Davidovič Landau Max Ferdinand Perutz,
John Cowdery Kendrew
Francis Harry Compton Crick,
James Dewey Watson,
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Carl Pauling
1963. Eugene Paul Wigner,
Maria Goeppert-Mayer,
Hans Daniel Jensen
Karl Ziegler,
Giulio Natta
John Carew Eccles,
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin,
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Giorgos Seferis Međunarodni odbor Crvenoga križa, Liga društava Crvenoga križa
1964. Charles Hard Townes,
Nikolaj Genadijevič Basov,
Aleksandr Mihajlovič Prohorov
Dorothy Mary Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch,
Feodor Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre Martin Luther King
1965. Sin-Itiro Tomonaga,
Julian Seymour Schwinger,
Richard Phillips Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob,
André Lwoff,
Jacques Monod
Mihail Aleksandrovič Šolohov UNICEF
1966. Alfred Kastler Robert Sanderson Mulliken Peyton Francis Rous,
Charles Brenton Huggins
Šmuel Josef Agnon,
Nelly Sachs
 (nema)
1967. Hans Albrecht Bethe Manfred Eigen,
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish,
George Porter
Ragnar Arthur Granit,
Haldan Keffer. Hartline,
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias (nema)
1968. Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert William Holley,
Har Gobind Khorana,
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969. Murray Gell-Mann Derek Harold Richard Barton,
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück,
Alfred Day Hershey,
Salvador Edward Luria
Samuel Beckett Međunarodna organizacija rada (ILO) Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch,
Jan Tinbergen
1970. Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén,
Louis Eugène Félix Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Bernerd Katz,
Ulf Svante von Euler-Chelpin,
Julius Axelrod
Aleksandr Isajevič Solženjicin Norman Borlaug Paul Anthony Samuelson
1971. Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972. John Bardeen,
Leon Cooper,
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian Boehmer Anfinsen,
Stanford Moore,
William Howard Stein
Gerald Maurice Edelman,
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll (nema) John Richard Hicks,
Kenneth Joseph Arrow
1973. Leo Esaki,
Ivar Giaever,
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer,
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch,
Konrad Lorenz,
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Alfred Kissinger,
Le Duc Tho
Wassily Leontief
1974. Martin Ryle,
Anthony Hewish
Paul John Flory Albert Claude,
Christian de Duve,
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson,
Harry Edmund Martinson
Seán MacBride,
Eisaku Sato
Gunnar Myrdal,
Friedrich August von Hayek
1975. Aage Niels Bohr,
Benjamin Roy Mottelson,
James Rainwater
John Warcup Cornforth,
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore,
Renato Dulbecco,
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrej Dimitrijevič Saharov Leonid Vitaljevič Kantorovič,
Tjalling Charles Koopmans
1976. Burton Richter,
Samuel Chao Chung Ting
William Nunn Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg,
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams,
Mairead Corrigan
Milton Friedman
1977. Philip Waren Anderson,
Nevill Francis Mott,
John Hasbrouck van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Charles Louis Guillemin,
Andrew Victor Schally,
Rosalyn Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Gotthard Ohlin,
James Edward Meade
1978. Pjotr Leonidovič Kapica,
Arno Allan Penzias,
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter Dennis Mitchell Werner Arber,
Daniel Nathans,
Hamilton Othanel Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Menahem Begin,
Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat
Herbert Alexander Simon
1979. Sheldon Lee Glashow,
Abdus Salam,
Steven Weinberg
Herbert Charles Brown,
Georg Wittig
Allan Macleod Cormack,
Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
Odiseas Elytis Majka Terezija Theodore William Schultz,
William Arthur Lewis
1980. James Watson Cronin,
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg,
Walter Gilbert,
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf,
Jean Dausset,
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Robert Klein
1981. Nicholaas Bloembergen,
Arthur Leonard Schawlow,
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui,
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry,
David Hunter Hubel,
Torsten Niels Wiesel
Elias Canetti Ured visokoga povjerenika UN-a za izbjeglice James Tobin
1982. Kenneth Geddes Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Karl Bergström,
Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson,
John Robert Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal Reimer,
Alfonso García Robles
George Joseph Stigler
1983. Subrahmanian Chandrasekhar,
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu
1984. Carlo Rubbia,
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kai Jerne,
Georges Jean Franz Köhler,
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Mpilo Tutu John Richard Nicholas Stone
1985. Klaus von Klitzing Herbert Aaron Hauptman,
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown,
Joseph Leonard Goldstein
Claude Simon Međunarodna organizacija liječnika za sprječavanje nuklearnog rata Franco Modigliani
1986. Ernst Ruska,
Gerd Binnig,
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley Robert Herschbach,
Yuan Tseh Lee,
John Charles Polanyi
Stanley Cohen,
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James McGill Buchanan
1987. Johannes Georg Bednorz,
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald James Cram,
Jean-Marie Lehn,
Charles John Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Josif Aleksandrovič Brodski Oscar Arias Sánchez Robert Merton Solow
1988. Leon Max Lederman,
Melvin Schwartz,
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer,
Robert Huber,
Hartmut Michel
James Whyte Black,
Gertrude Belle Elion,
George Herbert Hitchings
Nagib Mahfuz Mirovne snage UN-a Maurice Allais
1989. Norman Foster Ramsey,
Hans Georg Dehmelt,
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman,
Thomas Robert Cech
John Michael Bishop,
Harold Elliot Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (Dalaj Lama XIV.) Trygve Magnus Haavelmo
1990. Jerome Isaac Friedman,
Henry Way Kendall,
Richard Edward Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Edward Murray,
Edward Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mihail Sergejevič Gorbačov Harry Max Markowitz,
Merton Howard Miller,
William Forsythe Sharpe
1991. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard Robert Ernst Erwin Neher,
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Harry Coase
1992. Georges Charpak Rudolph Arthur Marcus Edmond Henry Fischer,
Edwin Gerhard Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Tum Gary Stanley Becker
1993. Russell Alan Hulse,
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
Kary Banks Mullis,
Michael Smith
Richard John Roberts,
Philip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela,
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Robert William Fogel,
Douglass Cecil North
1994. Bertram Neville Brockhouse,
Clifford Glenwood Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred Godman Gilman,
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburo Oe Jaser Arafat,
Shimon Peres,
Yitzhaq Rabin
John Charles Harsanyi,
John Forbes Nash Jr.,
Reinhard Selten
1995. Martin Lewis Perl,
Frederick Reines
Paul Crutzen,
Mario Molina,
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward Bok Lewis,
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard,
Eric Francis Wieschaus
Seamus Justin Heaney Joseph Rotblat,
Pugwashka konferencija o znanosti i svjetskim zbivanjima
Robert Emerson Lucas Jr.
1996. David Morris Lee,
Douglas Dean Osheroff,
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert Floyd Curl,
Harold Walter Kroto,
Richard Errett Smalley
Peter Charles Doherty,
Rolf Martin Zinkernagel
Wislava Szymborska Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo,
José Ramos-Horta
James Alexander Mirrlees,
William Spencer Vickrey
1997. Steven Chu,
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji,
William Daniel Phillips
Paul Delos Boyer,
John Ernest Walker,
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley Ben Prusiner Dario Fo Međunarodni pokret za uklanjanje mina, Jody Williams Robert Cox Merton,
Myron Samuel Scholes
1998. Robert Betts Laughlin,
Horst Ludwig Störmer,
Daniel Chee Tsui
Walter Kohn,
John Anthony Pople
Robert Francis Furchgott,
Louis Joseph Ignarro,
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume,
William David Trimble
Amartya Kumar Sen
1999. Gerardus ‘t Hooft,
Martinus Justinus Godefriedus Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Liječnici bez granica Robert Alexander Mundell
2000. Žores Ivanovič Alferov (Alfjorov),
Herbert Kroemer,
Jack St. Clair Kilby
Alan Jay Heeger,
Alan Graham MacDiarmid,
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson,
Paul Greengard,
Eric Richard Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae Jung James Joseph Heckman,
Daniel Little McFadden
2001. Eric Allin Cornell,
Wolfgang Ketterle,
Carl Edwin Wieman
William Standish Knowles,
Ryoji Noyori,
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland Harrison Hartwell,
Richard Timothy Hunt,
Paul Maxime Nurse
Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul Ujedinjeni narodi,

Kofi Atta Annan

George Arthur Akerlof,
Andrew Michael Spence,
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz
2002. Raymond Davis Jr.,
Masatoshi Koshiba,
Riccardo Giacconi
John Bennett Fenn,
Koichi Tanaka,
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner,
Howard Robert Horvitz,
John Edward Sulston
Imre Kertész James Earl (Jimmy) Carter Daniel Kahneman,
Vernon Lomax Smith
2003. Aleksej Aleksejevič Abrikosov,
Vitalij Lazarevič Ginzburg,
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre,
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Christian Lauterbur,
Peter Mansfield
John Maxwell Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert Fry Engle III.,
Clive William John Granger
2004. David Jonathan Gross,
Hugh David Politzer,
Frank Anthony Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover,
Avram Hershko,
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel,
Linda Brown Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn Erling Kydland,
Edward Christian Prescott
2005. Roy Jay Glauber,
John Lewis Hall,
Theodor Wolfgang Hänsch
Yves Chauvin,
Robert Howard Grubbs,
Richard Royce Schrock
Barry James Marshall,
John Robin Warren
Harold Pinter Međunarodna agencija za atomsku energiju, Mohamed el-Baradei Robert John Aumann,
Thomas Crombie Schelling
2006. John Cromwell Mather,
George Fitzgerald Smoot
Roger David Kornberg Andrew Zachary Fire,
Craig Cameron Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus,
Grameen Bank
Edmund Strother Phelps
2007. Albert Fert,
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Renato Capecchi,
Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Međuvladin panel o klimatskim promjenama (IPCC),
Albert Arnold (Al) Gore
Leonid Hurwicz,
Eric Stark Maskin,
Roger Bruce Myerson
2008. Yoichiro Nambu,
Makoto Kobayashi,
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura,
Martin Chalfie,
Roger Yonchien Tsien
Harald zur Hausen,
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi,
Luc Montagnier
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio Martii Oiva Ahtisaari Paul Krugman
2009. Willard Boyle,
Charles Kao,
George Elwood Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrišnan,
Thomas Steitz,
Ada Yonath
Elisabeth Helen Blackburn,
Carol Widney Greider,
Jack William Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Hussein Obama Elinor Ostrom,
Oliver Eaton Williamson
2010. Andrej Konstantinovič Gejm,
Konstantin Sergejevič Novosjolov
Richard Frederick Heck,
Ei-ichi Negishi,
Akira Suzuki
Robert Geoffrey Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo Peter Arthur Diamond,
Dale Thomas Mortensen,
Christopher Antoniou Pissarides
2011. Saul Perlmutter,
Brian Paul Schmidt,
Adam Guy Riess
Dan Shechtman Bruce Alan Beutler,
Jules Alphonse Hoffmann,
Ralph Marvine Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf,
Leymah Gbowee,
Tavakkul Karman
Thomas John Sargent,
Christopher Albert Sims
2012. Serge Haroche,
David Jeffrey Wineland
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